Digital Mapping and 3D Analysis

The activities of this laboratory are focused on cartography, reconstruction and spatial analysis of geological and archaeological elements. Among its products, the following are particularly noteworthy: geological and geomorphological cartography, paleogeographic reconstructions, analysis of spatial patterns, 3D reconstructions and the morphometric analysis of archaeological sites and objects for different research projects in Europe and Africa. 

These activities, which take place both in the field and inside caves, can cover temporal sequences. Thus, the digitalization, reconstruction and analysis of Natural and Cultural Heritage can also be approached from a 4D perspective

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Methods

The laboratory has high-precision topographic equipment such as total stations, GPS/GNSS systems, photogrammetry systems, drones and spherical photography, and laser scanners for use in the field and in the laboratory. This equipment is complemented by the necessary hardware and software for data processing and analysis, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), teledetection and 3D applications.

The Total Station and GPS/GNSS systems (high-precision topographic machines) are used for detailed geoarchaeological mapping, to document the characteristics of archaeological and paleontological sites, to archive findings, to position samples and to conduct topographic surveys in order to generate a quality data infrastructure for the study, interpretation, conservation, dissemination and cultural development of sites.

The 3D Laser field Scanner with LIDAR technology and photographic texture capture is a device that can discreetly capture any element in three dimensions (3D) at very high resolution, so that it can be digitally analyzed in a CAD, SIG or BD environment. The product generated is an actual size high-density point cloud, based on which we can make metric calculations, obtain sketches, cuts and sections, vectorize entities and model the desired elements in 2D/3D. The information obtained can be used to build three-dimensional digital models using a wide range of applications, such as archeology and geological, geomorphological and stratigraphic cartography.

The 3D handheld Laser Scanner is a device that analyzes an object or scene to gather data on its shape and occasionally on its color. The information obtained also includes 3D meshes and high-density point clouds whose application enables both the visual and digital dissemination of the objects analyzed and their 3D metric analysis.

The drones or unmanned air vehicles (UAV) are booming technologies with wide application for taking aerial photographs and videos in order to document specific locations and their surroundings, and for different types of base cartography, such as topographies, 3D surveys and orthophotographies. These products are employed for the dissemination of the elements analyzed and for different types of thematic mapping, such as site planimetry, geomorphological maps, geological maps and stylographic surveys.

Photogrammetry is a technique used to determine the geometric properties of objects and spatial situations based on photographic images. Generally, the purpose of this technique is to create a point cloud to extrapolate the shape of the object. The product generated is an actual size high-density triangulation mesh, based on which we can make metric calculations, obtain sketches, cuts and sections, vectorize entities and model elements.

Facilities and equipment
  • LEICA C10 SCANNER

Scanner with flight time technology. It has a data collection speed of 50,000 points/second, reaching distances of up to 300 m. The scanner has a 360º horizontal field of vision and a 270º vertical field of vision. Within this field of vision the device has a 4 mpx photographic camera, which shoots 230 frames giving panoramic vision of 920 mpx, calibrated in relation to the laser point cloudEquipo 11

  • FARO FOCUS 3D X330 SCANNER

Scanner with phase measurement LIDAR technology. It has a data collection speed of 976,000 points/second, reaching distances of up to 330 m. Within its field of vision the device has an integrated color photographic camera of up to 70 mpx.

  • NEXT ENGINE HANDHELD LASER SCANNER

New electro-optic architecture with a wide variety of lasers arranged in parallel, with a platform, where the objects are placed, with fully automatic alignment of several scans and new, unique and sophisticated algorithms.

  • ARTEC SPACE SPIDER HANDHELD LASER SCANNER

3D high-resolution handheld scanner based on blue LED light technology. It is an industrial 3D portable scanner, with compact dimensions and a low weight (19x14x13 cm and 0.85 kg), high speed (up to 1,000,000 points/second) and submillimetric resolution and accuracy (3D resolution of up to 0.1 mm; 3D accuracy of up to 0.05 mm; 3D accuracy in relation to the distance of up to 0.03 % over 100 cm).

  • LEICA VIVA TS15

It is the quickest total station on the market, with advanced image technology and with the Leica Smart-Worx Viva, enabling measurements with a single operator and compatible with Leica Viva GNSS.

  • LEICA TS02

It has a large high-resolution screen and user-friendly FlexField plus integrated software. It is particularly suited to the most common measurement activities and includes software for everyday field work.

  • Leica GPS/GNSS – Leica GS15

Interchangeable fixed and mobile station, offering flexibility to select the wireless communication device best suited to specific needs, compatible with intenna technology, a totally integrated concept of antenna. This smart antenna adapts to any environment and offers more accurate results. Possible to change the batteries without turning off. This option, along with the integrated antenna and the interchangeable communication devices, are the best elements for a completely versatile GNSS system.

  • eBee RTK UAV

Fixed-wing drone with a GNSS RTK system that makes it possible to take georeferenced aerial frames with centimeter accuracy without the need for ground control points. Compatible with a wide range of base stations and networks of virtual reference stations (VRS). Accuracy of up to 3 centimeters.

  • DJI Phantom 3 UAV
  • Rotary-wing, or multirotor, drone used to obtain aerial photographs and videos in areas that are inaccessible to fixed-wing drones
Applications and Services

Applications

  • High-precision topographic surveys (coordinates, planimetry, sections, etc.)
  • Geological and geomorphological analysis of sites and geographical areas
  • 3D reconstructions and analysis of sites, archaeological remains and other elements
  • Analysis of spatial patterns of archaeological remains and traces of use
  • 4D reconstructions of sites and their formation processes

Services

  • Topographic survey with total station
  • Topographic survey with GPS/GNSS
  • 3D surveys of scenes with laser field scanner
  • 3D surveys of objects with handheld and desktop scanner
  • Terrestrial photogrammetry
  • Aerial photogrammetry with fixed-wing and rotary-wing drones
  • Large format printing and scanning

 

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