Tamajón

Pleistocene site located in the province of Guadalajara (Spain).

Homo sapiens settlement.

41.0351579, -3.2251004

 

In the surroundings of the town of Tamajón (Guadalajara) there is a karst formation. In the interior of some of the cavities in the area, sedimentary fillings rich in quaternary archaeo-paleontological materials have been found. Since 2017, deposits corresponding to the Upper Pleistocene belonging to the time of the Neanderthals, the first Homo sapiens, and the transition period between both species have been excavated. During excavations in the 1990s, biostratigraphic levels in association with Pleistocene faunas were identified.  This led to the resumption of excavations and investigations in this region in 2017.

The re-study of the cave known as Cueva de los Torrejones has allowed the detection of three chronologies: a period between 90,000 and 70,000 years in which the cave was used as a hideout for carnivores. The conditions inferred in this period point to a temperate climate with a varied ecosystem. The second episode is about 30,000 years old and is indicative of colder and more arid environmental conditions. Finally, about 4,500 years ago, humans used the cavity to repeatedly accumulate the corpses of their deceased.

Since systematic excavations began in the Malia shelter in 2018, numerous remains of lithic industry and remains of human-eaten fauna from the Upper Paleolithic have been recovered. These findings corroborate the human presence in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula at the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic. The Malia shelter was also occupied in more recent chronologies by farming and ranching groups who dug silos in the Paleolithic sediments for their daily activities.